Play Sports Network Privacy Policy

Play Sports Network Privacy Notice

We are Play Sports Network Limited. We provide a range of services including websites, platforms and applications where we display our content, subscription services and retail sites, and this privacy policy details how we process and look after your personal information when you visit or use any of those websites, pages or applications (each a “Service” and collectively referred to here as the “Services”). The Services subject to this privacy policy include, without limitation:

This privacy policy aims to give you information on how PSN collects and processes your personal data through your use of the Services. Please read this policy carefully, together with any other privacy notice or fair processing notice we may provide on specific occasions when we are collecting or processing personal data about you. Please also refer to our Data Charter, available at
We respect your right to privacy. Our overall aim is to ensure that our collection and use of personal information is appropriate to the provision of the Services to you and is in accordance with applicable data protection laws. By continuing to use our Services, you confirm that you have read and understood this privacy policy in its entirety.
Further details of how we do so is set out in each section of our privacy policy as follows
1. Who we are
2. Children
3. Types of information we collect from or about you
4. How we use the information we collect
5. How we disclose your personal information and who we disclose it with
6. Cookies and Similar Technologies
7. Security
8. Data Retention
9. Your Privacy Rights
10. Additional Rights of California Residents
11. Marketing
12. Third party links, sites and service providers
13. Changes to this privacy policy
14. Complaints, questions and suggestions

1.          Who we are

We are Play Sports Network Limited, registered in England with company number whose 08265494 registered office is at Chiswick Park Building 2, 566 Chiswick High Road, London, England, W4 5YB.
PSN is part of the Play Sports Group of companies (incorporating the separate legal entities Play Sports Network Limited and Play Sports Group Limited). As of January 2019, the Play Sports Group of companies are subsidiaries of Warner Brothers Discovery, Inc. Accordingly, where we refer to our holding companies and our wider group of companies within this privacy policy, this includes Warner Brothers Discovery, Inc. and its subsidiaries.
Please note that certain paid subscription products (which may be available to purchase from time to time via a Service including, without limitation, paid subscriptions to view content via the GCN App (or the equivalent web environment), may be distributed by another entity within our group of companies. Where this is the case, we will inform you prior to the point of purchase, registration or subscription and your personal information will be processed by the distributing entity as necessary for the provision of the Service and in accordance with this privacy policy.
Where you purchase a paid subscription to view content via the GCN App (or the equivalent web environment), the distributing entity is DPlay Entertainment Limited, registered in England with company number 09615785 whose registered office is at Chiswick Park Building 2, 566 Chiswick High Road, London, England, W4 5YB (“DEL”). Accordingly, DEL (as distributor) acts as an independent co-controller (along with PSN) of the personal information which you provide as part of your subscription purchase, and DEL will process your personal information in accordance with this privacy policy.

2.          Children

Our Services are directed to adults and not intended for use by children under the age of thirteen (13), and we do not knowingly collect any personal information from children under the age of thirteen (13).  If you are a parent or guardian of a child under the age of thirteen (13) and believe he or she has disclosed personally identifiable information to us, please contact us at  A parent or guardian of a child under the age of thirteen (13) may review and request deletion of such child’s personally identifiable information as well as prohibit the use thereof.

3.          Types of information we collect from or about you

When you interact with the Services, we collect information that personally identifies you (i.e., information that would allow someone to identify you or contact you, such as your full name, postal address, e-mail address or telephone number), as well as information about your use of the Services.
Information that you disclose with us
This includes personal information you submit to us through data entry fields required as part of your use of a Service including, without limitation, when you:

  • purchase, access subscribe to or download our products or services (including a paid club subscription, signing up to a mobile application or a retail / event purchase);
  • submit content including photos, comments, videos and other materials that you upload, submit or disclose via the Services ("User Content");
  • create an account in order to use one or more of our Services;
  • apply for a job with us (including through any third-party recruitment platform we may use from time to time);
  • request marketing or newsletters to be sent to you;
  • enter a competition, prize giveaway, promotion, quiz or survey;
  • provide us with feedback.

When you submit personal information to us through any of the above Services, we may collect the following information from you:

  • your name;
  • your e-mail address;
  • your physical address;
  • your phone number;
  • your gender;
  • your User Content: please note that any User Content that you submit to the Services may be made public subject to the terms of the Community Guidelines
  •  Please think about this before submitting the information and consider whether you want to make it public, especially if it includes sensitive information.
  • any email or other communications, including attachments, which you send to us. We may use third party service providers and/or third-party software to record text chat to help address customer service inquiries;
  • where you are purchasing services from us, your payment information including cardholder name billing address; bank account and payment card details and information about the transactions such as the products or services purchased;
  • your Facebook, Apple or Google login, where you use a Facebook, Apple or Google login to create or sign into an account with us; and
  • profile data including your username and password for registering an account, purchases or orders made by you, your interests and preferences such as your marketing preferences and survey responses or feedback provided by you.

Information from your online interactions
We collect the following information from your interaction with the Services:

  • how you access our Services and the devices that you use to access our Services.  This includes collecting unique online identifiers such as IP address and your login data, browser type and version, time zone setting and location, browser plug-in types and versions, operating system and platform and other technology on the devices you use to access this Services;
  • information about how you use the Services, including but not limited to sign-in and sign-out (where applicable), site visits, reporting of errors you may encounter in the Services, browsing information and patterns, your video consumption and playback as well as cookies, server logs and other similar technologies, and we may also receive technical data about you if you visit other websites employing our cookies or other tracking technologies. In collecting Information about your use of a Service, we may use service providers or other solutions to record users' interactions with our Sites, which may include mouse clicks, mouse movements, page scrolling, and keystrokes/key touches during those sessions. We use these recordings to diagnose issues and identify areas for improvement and further engagement. Please see our cookie policy for further information; and
  • any e-mail or other communications, including attachments, which you send to us through or in relation to the Services

Third parties or publicly available sources
We may receive personal information about you from various third parties as set out below:

  • technical data from the following parties:
    • analytics providers such as Google;
    • advertising networks; and
    • search information providers.

For further information about how each of these parties collect and use your data, please see the ‘Third-Party advertising companies’ section below;

  • identity and contact data from data brokers, aggregators and publicly available sources;
  • contact, financial and transaction data from providers of technical, payment and delivery services; and
  • third parties that provide certain services to us within the Services, for example, facilitating and administering customer feedback forms and newsletter subscriptions, payment providers and third parties providing recruitment, booking and other services to us.

We do not collect any Special Categories of Personal Data about you (which includes details about race or ethnicity, religious or philosophical beliefs, political opinions etc).
It is important that the personal data we hold about you is accurate and current. Please keep us informed if your personal data changes during your relationship with us.

4.          How we use the information we collect

We use your personal information to provide and improve the Services, to communicate with you, to deliver advertising, and to develop and provide additional products, features and offerings, as explained in more detail below:
To provide, maintain, develop, and improve the Services, including to:

  • make the Services available to you and allow you to participate in special features of the Services such as polls or quizzes;
  • fulfil your requests for products, services or information;
  • administer the Services and process your payment where you are purchasing the Services from us (including but not limited to using third-party service providers to process such payment);
  • learn about how you use the Services, including by linking your activities across the various devices you use;
  • analyse your use of the Services, including video consumption, playback and general content interaction in order to understand viewership and update and improve our Services, including but not limited to our content, features, scheduling, technology and products, and carry out targeted promotional activities;
  • customize the content and advertisements you receive from us and our trusted partners and determine the effectiveness of our promotional campaigns and advertising; and
  • suggest similar products to you that you may be interested in and to understand which products appeal to our customers; and
  • use IP addresses and device identifiers to identify the location of users and block any unauthorised users;

To communicate with you, including to:

  • provide customer service support or respond to your inquiries, requests or comments (for example if you were to call customer services to ask for help and assistance then we would need to use your contact details);
  • send you electronic newsletters;
  • offer you additional information, opportunities, marketing, promotions, and functionality for our products and services and those of our subsidiaries and affiliated companies, our business partners, or third-party advertisers;
  • provide you information relevant to the security or administration of the Services (for example, where we need to send you a password reminder, to notify you about Services updates or amendments to our Terms of Use, Cookie Policy or this Privacy Policy); and
  • where you have opted out of our marketing or objected to receiving e-mails from us, then we need to keep records of your preferences to ensure that we do not contact you if you have asked us not to.

For legal or other business purposes, including:

  • complying with our legal obligations;
  • to prevent fraud or potentially illegal activities on our Services, and to protect the safety of users and others on our Services;
  • for internal business purposes or for any other purposes disclosed at the time you provide the information or as otherwise set forth in this Privacy Policy.

Third-party advertising companies
We want to make sure that our advertising and marketing is relevant and interesting to you and our other users. To achieve this, we use third-party advertising and technology companies to serve ads and/or provide aggregated data to assist in serving ads when you visit or use our Services. This may include third party technology companies which collect data about you in order to build a profile of your preferences based on your activities when you visit or use our Services. We may also use these companies to automatically collect data from you when you use our Services in order to help us identify the ads that are served to you and what you do after seeing those ads. In addition, we also disclose data with providers of web analytics tools, such as Google, which we use to analyse your use of the Services.
These third-party advertising companies collect, store and use data by integrating cookies and other tracking software on our Services. Please see our Cookie Policy for further information. In some cases these third parties will also use the data that they collect for their own purposes, for example they may aggregate your data with other data they hold and use this to inform advertising related services provided to other clients and work with other advertising companies and disclose your personal information with such companies as part of the process.
Please see our Cookie Policy for more information on the third-party advertising companies which collect, use and store data about you, and the use of cookies and other tracking technologies on our Services. From our Cookie Policy you can also find out how to exercise control over this collection and use of data. If you choose to restrict or prevent tracking for these purposes then the advertising you see when you visit or use our Services will no longer be tailored to your preferences.
We might also disclose your data with social media or other similar platforms, so that you and other people can see relevant content on that platform. For example, we may use the Facebook Custom Audiences service and share your e-mail address in a protected format with Facebook so that we can: include you in a custom audience that we will serve relevant advertising content to on Facebook; or create an audience of other Facebook users based on the information in your Facebook profile.

5.          How we disclose your information and who we disclose it with

Disclosure of personal information across Services
In order to access or interact with some of the Services we offer, you are required you to register for a Single Sign On (SSO) account. You will be able to access or interact with multiple different Services via this SSO account (for example you may purchase an item from an online store and subscribe for a mobile app). You agree to PSN's disclosure of your personal information submitted to an SSO account across the various Services you may access or interact with through that SSO account. This helps us to build a better profile of your account and make the content you see more relevant to you.
Disclosure of personal information with others
Additionally, we disclose information under the following circumstances:

  • Third-party companies: When we disclose information with third-party service companies to facilitate or to provide certain services on our behalf. This will include:
    • IT infrastructure companies that facilitate our provision of the Services to you such as providers of our platform (including for example Amazon Web Services and Google Cloud Platform);
    • Third parties who provide first level customer support on our behalf, including hosting chat services, or recording user interactions to assess usability of our Services;
    • IT support service providers;
    • Payment service providers (if you pay to subscribe to our Services) who will process your subscription payments on our behalf; and
    • Third parties who facilitate delivery and management of orders or subscriptions (currently including Green Snow Limited (order processing) and Realtime Despatch Software Limited (warehouse management). We are careful to ensure that any personal information processed by these providers is limited insofar as possible and that appropriate security measures are in place to ensure the safety of your information. For further details, please refer to the terms and conditions for our shop sites (as applicable), available at,, and;
    • Third party organisations to process and display customer reviews of products purchased through our websites, which third party may be provided with order details including your name, email address and details of the products you have purchased, to enable them to contact you to ask for a review and for no other reason. You are not under any obligation to provide a review, but we're grateful for your feedback!;
    • For purchases of tickets to events and festivals we operate from time to time, we may appoint third party organisations who will process your payment and / or booking information;
    • Third parties who may provide you with a prize where you enter a promotional giveaway (where this is stated in the terms and conditions for any particular giveaway); and
    • Other third-party service providers, for the purpose of providing or tracking our customers' use of the Services (which may include organisation providing remarketing services such as Google, Criteo, and Facebook), providing recruitment platform services and booking platform services to us.

These companies are authorised to use your personal information only as necessary to provide these Services to us.

  • Group companies: We may provide your personal information to our subsidiaries or affiliated companies for the purpose of processing personal information on our behalf to provide the Services to you, including sending you information about products and services that may be of interest to you in accordance with this Privacy Policy, and the provision of customer services or subscription management. These parties are required to process such information based on our instructions and in accordance with this privacy policy. They do not have any independent right to disclose this information.
  • Compliance with laws and legal proceedings: When we respond to court orders, or legal process, or to establish or exercise our legal rights or defend against legal claims. When we believe in our sole discretion it is necessary to disclose information in order to investigate, prevent or take actions against illegal activities, suspected fraud, situations involving potential threats to the physical safety of any person, violations of the terms of use which relate to the Service in question, or as otherwise required by law.
  • Merger or acquisition: When we need to transfer information about you if we are acquired by or merged with another company.  If we are involved in a merger, acquisition, or sale of all or a portion of its assets, you will be notified afterwards via e-mail and/or a prominent notice on our Services of any change in ownership or uses of your personal information, as well as any choices you may have regarding your personal information.
  • Disclosing your User Content. Any User Content which you voluntarily disclose on the Services will become visible to other users of the Services.

6.          Cookies and similar technologies

Technologies such as cookies, beacons, tags, scripts and SDKs are used by us and our partners, affiliates, or analytics or service providers. These technologies are used in analysing trends, administering the Services, tracking users’ movements around the Services and to gather demographic information about our user base as a whole. We receive reports based on the use of these technologies by these companies on an individual as well as aggregated basis.
We use cookies, for example, to remember users’ settings (e.g. language preference) and for authentication. Users can control the use of cookies at the individual browser level. If you reject cookies, you may still use our Services, but your ability to use some features or areas of our Services may be limited.
Please read more about how we use cookies and other tracking technologies and what information is collected using cookies in our Cookie Policy.
PSN also uses Google Analytics, a web analytics service provided by Google, Inc. Where relevant, Google Analytics uses cookies to help us analyse how users use our sites and Services. The information generated by the cookie about your use of the Site (including your IP address) will be transmitted to and stored by Google on their servers. Google will use this information for the purpose of evaluating your use of a website, compiling reports on website activity for website operators and providing other services relating to website activity and internet usage. Google may also transfer this information to third parties where required to do so by law, or where such third parties process the information on Google’s behalf.
Please note that third parties (including for example, advertising networks and providers of external services like web traffic analysis services) may also use cookies, which we are not responsible for and over which we have no control. These cookies are likely to be analytical/performance cookies or targeting cookies. Accordingly, when you view and interact with our content on other platforms, including for example on Facebook, Instagram, Twitter and YouTube, those platforms may also use cookies. If you are in any doubt about the cookie policies of those platforms, we would suggest that you review them at the following links:
Twitter:; and

7.          Security

We have put in place appropriate security measures to protect your personal data from being accidentally lost, used or accessed in an unauthorised way, altered or disclosed. In addition, we limit access to your personal data to those employees, agents, contractors and other third parties who have a business need to know. They will only process your personal data on our instructions, and they are subject to a duty of confidentiality.
We have put in place procedures to deal with any suspected personal data breach and will notify you and any applicable regulator of a breach where we are legally required to do so.
Whilst we take appropriate technical and organisational measures to safeguard the personal information that you provide to us, no transmission over the Internet can ever be guaranteed secure.  Consequently, please note that we cannot guarantee the security of any personal information that you transfer over the Internet to us.
If you create an account or register with our Services, you are responsible for maintaining the secrecy of your password at all times.

8.          Data Retention

We will retain information (including personal information) for as long as we need to use it for the reasons set out in the privacy policy except where we need to keep any personal information to comply with our legal obligations, resolve disputes, or enforce our agreements.

9.          Your privacy rights

Depending on your state of residence, applicable law may allow you to make certain requests about your “personal information” or “personal data” (as such terms are defined under applicable law, and collectively referred to herein as “personal information”). Specifically, you may be permitted to request us to:

  • Inform you about the categories of personal information we collect or disclose about you; the categories of
    sources of such information, the business or commercial purpose for collecting your personal information, and
    the categories of third parties with whom we disclose personal information;
  • Provide access to and/or a copy of certain personal information we hold about you;
  • Delete certain personal information we have about you;
  • Opt out of the sale of your personal information;
  • Opt out of the processing of your personal information for targeted advertising purposes;
  • Request correction of your personal information; and
  • Provide you with information about the financial incentives that we offer to you, if any.

Please note that certain information may be exempt from such requests under applicable law. For example, we need certain information in order to provide the Services to you.

Verification: We will take reasonable steps to verify your identity before responding to a request, which may include, at a minimum, depending on the sensitivity of the information you are requesting and the type of request you are making, verifying your name, e-mail address, and physical address.

You may also be permitted to designate an authorised agent to submit certain requests on your behalf. In order for an authorised agent to be verified, you must provide the authorised agent with signed, written permission to make such requests or a power of attorney. We may also follow up with you to verify your identity before processing the authorised agent’s request. If we deny your request in whole or in part, you may have the right to appeal the decision. In such circumstances, we will provide you with information regarding the appeals process.

How to Exercise these Rights: If you would like further information regarding your legal rights under applicable law or would like to exercise them, please follow the instructions below.

  • Right to Know, Access, Correction and Deletion Requests: to submit these requests, please click here to use our intake form, or, if you prefer, you may contact us at the following toll-free phone number to make your request: +1-866-324-3637. Please note that we may require you to provide appropriate documentation to support your correction request, which we will use only for purposes of actioning your request.
  • Opt Out of “Sale” of Personal Information or Processing of Personal Information for “targeted advertising”: Depending on your jurisdiction of residence, you may have the ability to opt out of the “sale” of your personal information to third parties or the processing of your personal information for “targeted advertising” purposes (as such terms are defined under applicable law). Please click the link labeled “Do not Sell or Share My Personal Information” in the footer or settings menu of our Services to exercise these choices.

10.          Additional Privacy Information for California Residents

If you are a California resident, California law requires us to provide you with some additional information regarding the “personal information” (as defined in the California Consumer Privacy Act (“CCPA”)) we collect from and about you, and your rights with respect to your personal information.
For detailed information about the categories of personal information we collect, the sources from which we collect this personal information, how we use this personal information, and the categories of third parties to which we disclose this personal information, please see the following sections in our privacy policy:

  1. The Data We Collect About You;
  2. How is Your Personal Data Collected;
  3. How We Use Your Personal Data; and
  4. Disclosures of Your Personal Data.

California Information & Deletion Rights 

Please see the "Your Privacy Rights" section of our Privacy Policy for information about the rights you have under California law and how to exercise them.

Notice of Right to Opt-Out of Sale and Sharing of Personal Information

California residents may opt out of the “sale” of their personal information. Under the CCPA, “sale” is broadly defined to mean the disclosure of personal information with third parties who are not acting as our service providers or who are otherwise not restricted from using data pursuant to an applicable CCPA exception.
Under the CCPA, “sale” may include allowing third parties to “collect” certain information, such as IP address, and/or browsing behaviour, through cookies and similar technologies, to deliver targeted advertising on the Services or other services.  Advertising, including targeted advertising, enables us to provide you certain content for free and allows us to provide you offers relevant to you.

The CCPA also allows California residents to opt out of the “sharing” of their personal information for “cross-context behavioral advertising.” Under the CCPA, this activity is defined as the targeting of advertising to a consumer based on that consumer’s personal information obtained from the consumer’s activity across websites. We “share” information for these purposes to provide more relevant and tailored advertising to you regarding our Services and the services of our partners.

Over the last 12 months, we have sold and/or shared the following categories of personal information to the following categories of third parties:

Category of Third Party Category of Personal Information “Sold” Category of Personal Information “Shared”
Online advertisers, ad networks, and advertising partners


Device information and identifiers

Internet network and device activity data

Demographic, statistical, and interest information

Device information and identifiers

Internet network and device activity data

Demographic, statistical, and interest information

Social media networks and marketing partners Device information and identifiers Device information and identifiers
Identity matching providers and data brokers Device information and identifiers Device information and identifiers

If you would like to opt out of our use of your information for such purposes that are considered a “sale” or "sharing" under California law, you may do so by clicking the "Do Not Sell or Share My Personal Information" link in the footers or app settings menus of our Services.  Please note that we do not knowingly sell the personal information of minors under 16 years of age without legally required affirmative authorisation.

Please note that we respond to and abide by browser-based opt-out preference signals. Any opt out preferences you have exercised through these methods will only to the browser on which you made them. The CCPA further provides you with the right to not be discriminated against (as provided for in applicable law) for exercising your access, deletion or sale/sharing opt out rights.

The CCPA also allows you to limit the use or disclosure of your “sensitive personal information” (as defined in the CCPA) if your sensitive personal information is used for certain purposes. Please note that we do not use or disclose sensitive personal information other than for purposes for which you cannot opt out under the CCPA.

Retention of Your Personal Information

We will only retain your Information for as long as is necessary for the purposes described in this Privacy Policy. This means that the retention periods will vary according to the type of Information and the reason that we have collected the Information in the first place. In determining how long to retain information, we consider the amount, nature and sensitivity of the information, the potential risk of harm from unauthorized use or disclosure of the information, the purposes for which we process the information, applicable legal requirements, and our legitimate interests. The purposes for which we process information (as well as the other factors listed above) may dictate different retention periods for the same types of information. For example, if you purchase a subscription to one of our paid services, we will retain your payment history records for a period of time after you’re your purchase for our anti-fraud and legal compliance purposes. If you opt out of email marketing, we maintain your email on our suppression list indefinitely to comply with your request. We may delete or de-identify your information sooner if we receive a verifiable deletion request, subject to exemptions under applicable law. We may retain cached or archived copies of your information.

California “Shine the Light” Disclosure
If a company shares “personal information” (as defined in California’s “Shine the Light” law, Civil Code § 1798.83) with third parties for their direct marketing purposes (e.g., to send offers and information that may be of interest to you), California law requires either providing a mechanism by which consumers can obtain more information about such sharing over the prior calendar year, or providing a mechanism by which consumers can opt out of such sharing.  As discussed above, we provide an opt out for this sharing.  If you are a California resident and would like to opt out of sharing pursuant to this law, please use the “Do Not Sell My Personal Information” link above.

Additional Privacy Information for Nevada residents
Under Nevada law, Nevada residents who have purchased goods or services from us may opt out of the “sale” of “covered information” (as such terms are defined under Nevada law) for monetary consideration to a person for that person to license or sell such information to additional persons.  We do not currently engage in this activity, but if you are a Nevada resident who has purchased goods or services from us, you may submit a request to opt out of future “sales” activity emailing us at Please note we may take reasonable steps to verify your identity and the authenticity of the request.

11.          Marketing

Like many organisations, we may target banners and ads to you when you are on other websites and apps. We do this using a variety of digital marketing networks and ad exchanges, and we use a range of advertising technologies like web beacons, pixels, ad tags, cookies, and mobile identifiers, as well as email and platform specific services offered by some sites and social networks, (for example Facebook’s Custom Audience service).
The banners and ads you see will be based on information we hold about you, or your previous use of our Services (for example, your search history whilst using one of our websites or the content you view whilst on our Services) or on our banners or ads you have previously clicked on.
We may also use services such as those provided by MailChimp in order to contact you about items you have looked at or placed in a shopping cart on any of our shop sites, if you do not proceed to complete a purchase. MailChimp and other such providers employ the use of cookies, unique identifiers, web beacons and similar tracking technologies to keep tabs on things like open rates and conversion rates.
We will collect and use your personal information for undertaking marketing communications by email. However, we will always obtain your consent before we disclose your personal information to any third party for such marketing.
If you wish to stop receiving marketing communications from us, you can click unsubscribe in any marketing email from us, change your preferences in your account settings or contact us by email at

12.          Third-party links, sites and service providers

The Services contains links and pages to other websites operated by third parties.  Please note that this privacy policy applies only to the personal information that we collect through the Services and we cannot be responsible for personal information that third parties may collect, store and use through their website.  You should always read the privacy policy of each website you visit carefully.
Where you provide data to a third party such as those outlined above, generally your disclosure of data will be governed by the privacy terms of that third party, and unless otherwise stated we are not responsible for such disclosure or for any additional personal information you may decide to provide to such third parties. You are strongly advised to read any relevant third party's privacy and cookie policies prior to any such disclosure of data.

13.          Changes to this privacy policy

This privacy policy was last updated on 28 April 2020.
Please check back regularly to keep informed of updates to this privacy policy. Where we make significant changes to this privacy policy, and we have your e-mail address, we will send you notification of the changes.

14.          Complaints, questions and suggestions

Our Data Protection Officer can assist with all queries regarding our processing of personal information. Our Data Protection Officer can be contacted by e-mailing Please contact us in the first instance before exercising your right to make a complaint to any supervisory authority for data protection issues; we will do our best to resolve any concerns you may have.